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My name is Daveedu Katcha have been working as a special education teacher since 1999 in variety of educational settings like elementary, middle school, high school,  and clinical settings. I have done my bachelors in special education and masters in psychology I am very flexible in the design and implementation of inspiring hands on lessons, employing wide ranging adapted curricular activities and relevant IEPs to enhance student achievement. Skilled in addressing student needs, ensuring students will thrive and develop in an adaptable education atmosphere.




The House on Mango Street web link 

The House on Mango Street - NLCPHS    


The Middle Passage DBQ Essay  

 Weblink       Middle Passage | Slavery and Remembrance                 


Weblink    The Transatlantic Slave Trade: Webquest - Quia       


Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of documents 1 -5 and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period. (In this instance the source is considered the pictures and quotes in the boxes, outside information is the background information included on the cards.    

Beginning in 1492, with the 1st voyage of Columbus, Europeans began to establish colonies in the Americas. How did New World colonization lead the Atlantic slave trade?   

Start the process by creating a graphic organizer like the one below.   

Graphic Organizer  


Info from Document  

Outside information  


















Your essay should be at least 5 paragraphs long. It needs a proper introduction and conclusion. Proper conventions will be the expectation.   

How did New World colonization lead to the Atlantic Slave trade?  

#1 Sugar & the Columbian Exchange  


“I do not know if coffee and sugar are necessary to the happiness of Europe, but I know well that these two vegetables are a source of misery to the inhabitants of two continents of the world. We are dispeopling America in order to have a land to grow them; we are dispeopling Africa in order to have a nation to cultivate them.”   

A Voyage to the Isle of France by: Bernardin De Saint Pierre 1773  

Sugar was in great demand in Europe, but there was very little room in which to grow it. On Columbus’ second voyage to the Caribbean he brought sugar cane to the island of  

Hispaniola. This movement of plants, animals and diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres is known as the Columbian Exchange. Many historians see sugar as the greatest gift of the Columbian exchange.  

In the early stages of  

Spanish colonialism Native Americans were used as laborers in the fields this  

was referred to as an encomienda. Disease however wiped out vast numbers of natives. It is because of this that European colonialists turned to Africa in search of cheap labor.   


Answer the following questions in complete sentences.  

  1. Based on the picture why would the Europeans use slaves to make sugar?  
  2. Based on the quote what is meant by “dispeopling Africa”?  
  3. How did the Columbian Exchange and the importation of sugar lead to African slavery?  


How did New World colonization lead to the Atlantic Slave trade?  

#2 The Capture of Slaves  

Olaudah Equiano also known as Gustavus Vassa, was one of the most prominent Africans involved in the British movement of the abolition of the slave trade. His autobiography depicted the horrors of slavery and helped influence British lawmakers to abolish the slave trade through the Slave Trade Act of 1807. Despite his enslavement as a young man, he purchased his freedom and worked as an author, merchant and explorer.  

Excerpt from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African  

One day, when all our people were gone out to their works as usual, and only I and my dear sister were left to mind the house, two men and a woman got over our walls and in a moment seized us both, and, without giving us time to cry out, or make resistance, they stopped our mouths, and ran off with us into the nearest wood. Here they tied our hands, and continued to carry us as far as they could, till night came on, when we reached a small house where the robbers halted for refreshment, and spent the night. We were then unbound, but were unable to take any food; and, being quite overpowered by fatigue and grief, our only relief was some sleep, which allayed our misfortune for a short time. … the only comfort we had was in being in one another's arms all that night, and bathing each other with our tears. But alas! we were soon deprived of even the small comfort of weeping together. The next day proved a day of greater sorrow than I had yet experienced; for my sister and I were then separated, while we lay clasped in each other's arms. It was in vain that we besought them not to part us; she was torn from me, and immediately carried away, while I was left in a state of distraction not to be described. I cried and grieved continually; and for several days.”   

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.  

  1. Who was Olaudah Equiano?  

How did Olaudah Equiano become a slave?  

  1. Based on his autobiography what do you think would be the worst part of being captured?  



How did New World colonization lead to the Atlantic Slave trade?  

#3 Mercantilism leads to Africans enslaving Africans  

While European slave traders controlled the shipment of slaves from Africa to the Americas via the Middle Passage, African Kingdoms along the Atlantic coast provided slaves to the Europeans. For centuries before the opening of the Middle Passage, slavery was common in Africa. Warring tribes would enslave prisoners of war. When  

Europeans approached kingdoms on the coast this practice took on a new fervor.   

Africans were captured by an enemy tribe, and then exchanged for European goods. Mercantilism encouraged both European and African kingdoms to seek a positive balance of trade. In the case of the Atlantic Slave trade, slaves were traded for weapons and later on rum. With time this would lead to the establishment of the so called “Triangle Trade”. Slaves would be taken to the Caribbean to work the sugar plantations. That sugar would be converted into rum. The rum would then be traded for  

even more slaves. The system acted to perpetuate or fuel it’s self.   

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.  

  1. Why would Africans be willing to enslave Africans?  
  2. Why would mercantilism cause slavery to increase?  
  3. Explain how the triangle trade fueled slavery.  

How did New World colonization lead to the Atlantic Slave trade?  

#4 The Middle Passage  

The Middle Passage refers to the voyage from Africa to the Americas. The length of the trip varied from one to six months depending on weather conditions. The journey became more efficient over the centuries; while an average transatlantic journey of the early 16th century lasted several months, by the 19th century the crossing often required fewer than six weeks.   

The typical slave ships contained several hundred slaves with about thirty crew members. The male captives were normally chained together in pairs to save space; right leg to the next man's left leg. Slaves were fed one meal a day with water, but if food was scarce, slaveholders would get priority over the slaves. Sometimes captives were allowed to move around during the day, but many ships kept the shackles on throughout the arduous journey.  


It is estimated that about 15% of slaves would not survive the Middle Passage. The conditions were harsh and the cramped quarters allowed disease to move rapidly.  

“After being about 15 days out to sea a heavy squall struck the ship. The poor slaves below, altogether unprepared for such an occurrence, were mostly thrown to the side, where they lay heaped on the top of each other; their fetters rendered many of them helpless, and before they could be arranged in their proper places, and relived from their pressure on each other, it was found that 15 of them were smothered or crushed to death. The captain seemed considerably vexed; but the only grievance to him was the sudden loss of some five or six thousand dollars.”  

From the Life and adventures of Zamba  

Answer the following questions in complete sentences.  

  1. What was the Middle Passage?  
  2. Why would slave be kept in cramped quarters and fed little?  
  3. According to the excerpt by Zamba why was the Captain of the ship upset about the death of slaves?   

How did New World colonization lead to the Atlantic Slave trade?  

#5 The Auction Block  


Answer the following questions in complete sentences.  

  1. Why would the poster claim that the slaves were well cared for and disease free?  
  2. Why were slaves examined before auction by potential buyers?  
  3. What effect did the auction block have on slave families?  


Outline for DBQ Paragraph 1 

Paragraph 1 

  1. Intro: Restate the question as a statement.
  2. Look at the big idea from first document of choice. Make into one clear sentence
  3. Look at the big idea from second document of choice. Make into one clear sentence
  4. Look at the big idea from third document of choice. Make into one clear sentence
  5. Develop a clear sentence (THESIS) that shows the reader where your essay will go.

Paragraph 2: 

  1. Intro: List your big idea from opening paragraph with 3 reasons. (Sugar: high demand, trade, cheap labor)
  2. 1st reason: Sugar in high demand
  3. 1st example: People wanted sugar for sweetener and to make rum
  4. 2nd reason: Trade through rum
  5. 2nd example: Europeans used rum to exchange for Africans and to make money in Europe
  6. 3rd reason: Africans took the place of Native Americans
  7. 3rd example: Cheap labor helped with business expenses
  8. Conclusion, but connect to next paragraph.: These elements contributed to the slave trade in the New World, but slavery already existed in Africa before Europeans arrived.

New World colonization intensified with through the use of the Atlantic Slave trade because of sugar being in high demand, a source for trade due to the products made from it, and would require a large, cheap labor force. First of all, sugar was in high demand. People around the world wanted sugar as a way to sweeten sour and bitter foods, but they also used it to make rum. Rum was used to make money, but also used as money to buy slaves. Furthermore, with the increase in money, Europeans saw how effective business could be by using cheap labor. Native Americans were the first farmers of sugar cane and sugar, but they were replaced by the Africans when they all died from Smallpox. Lastly, the use of cheaply traded slaves allowed the Europeans to run a very profitable business without spending any money to pay their workers. In conclusion, the element of sugar and sugar production contributed to colonization and slavery in the New World, but slavery was already a system in Africa way before Europeans hit the continent. 

Copper Sun Textbook  

web link 




Chapter 2, Strangers and Death: Copper Sun Critical Thinking Questions 

  1. Explain the significance of the “unusual-looking men” coming into the village with the Ashanti men? How does this event create a sense of community of safety? Provide examples in your answer.
  2. How does Amari’s desire to “stay in the shadows” create tension early in the chapter?
  3. What governing body/bodies in modern times are similar to the council of elders in your community, state, and nation? Explain.
  4. What could be a contemporary name for the “small ropes of sparkling beads unlike anything Amari had ever seen?” Explain your answer.
  5. In reference to question 4, what can be inferred about the difference in cultures between the strangers and Amari’s village?
  6. Why are the drums so important to the Ewe tribe? What in your life is like those drums?
  7. What was the explosion from the one end of the unusual weapon sticks? What did it signal the beginning of in the village?


Chapter 5: “Door of No Return” 

  1. Amari does not seem to understand the many aspects of the pale-faced culture. Using what she says about “the strange house…that seemed to rest oh the water”, what can be inferred about that house, and what conclusion can be drawn about her own culture?
  2. How are the tips from Afi helpful? What can be said about their usefulness in the future of the book?
  3. Describe a time when you had to use motives like the ones Afi taught Amari from question 2. (They do not have to be exactly the same. Focus on the strategy)
  4. Define reciprocity. Then highlight the two major examples of it from the chapter. Using your inference skills, what common expression(s) do we use today have that same meaning?
  5. Contrast the slave system of the whites and Amari's people. What new knowledge does this provide you as a learner. Be specific.

Chapter 6: “From Sand to Ship” 

  1. What can the reader infer from Afi's advice to Amari about her and Besa? Is this the best advice? Why or why not?
  2. The author makes an extra attempt to describe the power of the sea. Using two specific lines from the chapter, describe your understanding of the water’s might.
  3. What is the downside about being shackled with someone else? Which two events from the story so far paint that picture? Be specific.

Copper Sun: “Lessons- Painful and Otherwise” 

  1. Explain how Afi’s tips to Amari about survival in the slave system are displayed through her own actions at the beginning of the chapter.
  2. Amari is reluctant to trust the red-haired sailor early on in the chapter. Based on the definition of reciprocity from the previous chapters, how is the term applied in the chapter? Use the specific example. What charge does this create within Amari as a survivalist?
  3. Defend the following statement: The gift of language and the ability to speak English has different meanings for Amari and the red-haired sailor. The elements and need of language are different for the two characters. *Show the main difference between the two characters. *
  4. The idea of shame is pervasive in the story up to this point. Why is Amari most ashamed in chapter nine, and what reality is she forced to understand as she sits in her “shame”?

Copper Sun: “The Middle Passage” 

  1. What can the reader infer about Amari and her view of herself at the beginning of “The Middle Passage?” How does this speak to a certain element of the human condition that relates to people in 2018?
  2. Imagery is used by writers to not only set the scene as a picture in the reader’s mind, but to also create a mood in the story as well. Explain how “the sky was thick with dark, ominous clouds” establish a mood or feeling for both the characters and the reader. What does this description set up in the story, and what feeling does it create on the ship? Why?
  3. The smell at the bottom of the ship goes from unbearable to unbreathable. Show your understanding of this progression in the intensity of the smell. How did this happen?
  4. In earlier chapters Amari and Afi called the ship a “place of death.” Highlight three examples from the chapter that demonstrate this being plagued with death. Explain how each connect to the total understanding of being a “place of death.”

Copper Sun: Chapters 11-12 

  1. Describe the series of events that are beneficial to the slaves aboard the slave ship. What do these events setup for the reader in regards to the next chapter?
  2. What is the difference in the new land that the slaves were taken to opposed to where they thought they were headed?
  3. Define “breeder”. What plans do the slavers have for Afi?

Copper Sun: Chapters 13-14 

  1. Explain the habits of the “tall black man” from page 68. What can the reader infer about survival how Africans are transformed into slaves? What advice does the man give that will keep the slaves in good spirits?
  2. Once Amari and the other slaves get to Charles Town, what does she find to be the most amazing? How is this different from her background experience?
  3. Identify three examples that show Amari as “property?”
  4. How is Polly built as a character when looking at her interactions with her father? How is her mother a form of balance for Polly’s father?
  5. The fat man at the auction is a symbolic figure for the oppressiveness of slavery. Based on the description of the man, and how he is described as the auction continues, how is slavery supposed to be seen by the reader?
  6. Examine how the narrator begins to introduce Mr. Derby of Derbyshire Farms. What can the reader infer about him as a character, and how he will behave as the story progresses?


Copper Sun: Chapter 15, “Polly and Clay” 

  1. Explain Polly’s view on emotions, mainly sorrow, and how she has built up a wall against them both. How does this view serve as a defense to how she looks at the “slave girl who hiccupped and shook with sobs?” (p.80)
  2. Clay gives Polly two specific warnings on page 82. What are they? Also, using the site www.historyasaweapon.com, tell what the punishments would have been if she would break the rule concerning slaves? Using a T-Chart, show the differences in punishment for whites and blacks.
  3. Define indentured servant. Explain how this type of person is like a slave. How are the two different?
  4. Examine the constant description of Mr. Derby. What can the reader infer about him as a character based on his descriptions? Which information proves that point? What type of master does his description paint him out to be?
  5. Mr. Derby has a plan that goes against what Polly thinks that she is at Derbyshire Farms to do. How are their plans different? What feeling does this create inside of Polly? How does he convince her to follow his instructions without question?


Chapter 18: “Roots and Dirt” 

  1. Explain how Teenie tries to sympathize with Amari about her unwanted affair with Clay at the beginning of the chapter. Which details shows her understanding of Amari’s situation? After
  2. We find out that the first Mrs. Derby dies. What can the reader infer about the childbearing process during slavery based on the details on pg. 114? “T his be my little piece of my mother, my little breath of Africa. It’s all I got.” She carefully tucked it back into her pocket.
  3. Amari and Teenie make room for some of the behaviors of Clay. What do they say could be the roots of his anger and mannerisms? He hates his step mother

Chapter 19: “Peaches and Memories” 

  1. Amari has a brief moment where she is reunited with Kwasi. Which moment is that, and how does it help keep her from going insane? Tibit is the reason
  2. Amari has to face a harsh reality by the end of the chapter. What conclusion can the reader there is a lot of memories
  3. draw about her own understanding of how her life will be? Is this fair to her? Explain. Is not because she is a slave

Chapter 20: “Isabelle Derby” 

  1. Mrs. Isabelle is dramatically different from the Derby men (Clay and his father). Which details at the beginning of chapter show her as a balance to the behaviors of the men? How is she to be seen by the reader, and the slaves? The mother is a slave like person by how her husmun treates her
  2. Teenie and Lena have a brief discussion about the gender of the unborn baby. What elements of culture have been passed down from slavery to the current generation about predicting the gender? It is a girl
  3. Clay’s room is described like a well-kept space with fabulous qualities. How is his room different from him? How does he naturally ruin the “perfection” of the bed? sweat

Chapter 21: “Rice and Snakes” 

  1. There are two components that makes Mr. Derby so rich. What are the two and how do they need each other in order for him to be successful? Rice and slaves
  2. Describe Polly’s attitude on pg. 130. What is her thought process about her situation? Does she feel like it’s the best situation for her? mad
  3. Describe the scene when Polly first sees the rice fields. What feeling is brought up when she gets there? The big house
  4. Pg. 133 illustrates the conflict of Man V. Nature. Which details prove that they are always against nature? List at least four of the details. snake
  5. What is the end that mostly all slaves face at Derbyshire Farms? How will this end affect Amari and Tidbit? they will be in the rice fields

Chapter 22: “Lashed with a Whip” 

  1. Polly finally “arrives”. Which part at the beginning of the chapter proves this point, and how does she react to the situation? Mad and sad


 Chapter 23: “Fiery Pain and Healing Hands” 

  1. Explain the connection between the dreams that Amari have while she is asleep at the beginning of the chapter and the ordeal of beginning whipped by Massa Derby? What does this tell the reader about how humans process experience(s)? answer Amari is dreaming to be dead but she must be alive and is cruel
  2. What is the clear difference in Polly’s attitude in this chapter opposed to how she was when the reader first meets her at the slave auction? How does this show the ability to become “better”?

Answer is wrong that first time she meets Amari is a niger 

  1. Mrs. Derby offers Amari an apology on page 152. What side of Mrs. Derby is the reader to see in her doing this? How does this counter the behaviors and lifestyle of the Derby men? answer Mrs derby is a slave but married to mr derby and she is white and she is on Amari side
  2. Which details from the chapter show how a brutal beating has the ability to render someone immobile? What can be learned about the human body from those same details? answer Amari has 12 wlips on her back
  3. On page 155 Teenie uses a profound statement to Amari about scars. How can the reader translate what the text says and apply it to his or her own life? Provide a specific example of how the “healing of scars” has shown itself in your life. *Do not be graphic or inappropriate!

Answer scars is their for life and be their every day for example when I got surgery on my stomic my mother use ice to stop the pain 

Chapter 24: “Gator Bait” 

  1. Go to the link provided. How is this somewhat proven at the very beginning of the chapter? What does this say about the person involved? Answer tibit is used as a gator bait for the whites for food a. https://www.canidae.com/blog/2013/04/can-dogs-sense-if-someone-is-untrustworthy/
  2. Yet again in the novel the reader can truly see how slaves, even the children, were seen as property. Between pages 156-157, the narrator associates Tidbit with this meaningless piece of property. What does this do in the mind of both the slave and the master? *Make sure to address both groups of people. Answer slaves minds is mest up and the masters is having a good time to see the chirdlen struggle
  3. By the middle of the chapter, the boys seem to be unsure about whether or not they will actually get to catch a gator. How does this show the barbaric nature of owning humans? What emotion does it bring up for you? Explain. Answer a gator can be fast or slow but have a good chance no to be caught .
  4. Clay has been written to possess an inferiority complex. How is this proven in the chapter? What does it say about him as a young man? Answer clay is a bad man but nice in a way to amari
  5. By the end of the chapter Amari is forced to make TWO very confusing and critical decisions while being at the alligator hunt. How do these decisions turn out to be life savers? Use the text as justification for your answers. Answer Amari is make to say she loved clay .


Chapter 25: “Birth of the Baby” 

  1. How does Amari’s truth make up for Polly’s lie?  How should Polly feel?  Explain. 

Chapter 26: “Facing Mr. Derby” 

  1. What conclusion do the slaves come to at the beginning of the chapter?  What is the reaction of the slaves?  Polly? 
  2. What about the American way of life during slavery would give Mr. Derby the right to kill Noah if he did father Isabelle’s baby?   
  3. Why is the baby described as “deformed”?   
  1. Justify the fact that the baby was deformed, thus causing the ladies to come up with a plan to distract Mr. Derby. 
  1. Summarize Polly’s feelings and behaviors by the end of the chapter.  What can be said about her as a character? 

Chapter 27: “Death in the Dust” 

  1. How is Polly’s presence proved to be much needed on the plantation at the beginning of the chapter?  What special quality does she not realize exists because she is white? 
  2. Lies have a way of exposing the truth behind them.  What is the lie and how is it exposed? 
  1. What are the results of the lie(s)? 
  1. Describe the actions Clay Derby during the chapter.  How do they display an element of “sweet vengeance”? 
  2. What is Noah’s response to his understanding that he would be killed by Mr. Derby on pg. 181? 
  3. Mr. Derby is a strange man, with a leveled-head prove this using the last two pages of the chapter.  Use at least two specific from these pages. 
Fw: 6 ways social media is changing the world | World Economic Forum



My name is Daveedu Katcha have been working as a special education teacher since 1999. I am very flexible in the design and implementation of inspiring hands on lessons, employing wide ranging adapted curricular activities and relevant IEPs to enhance student achievement. Skilled in addressing student needs, ensuring students will thrive and develop in an adaptable education atmosphere.

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